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Week of 21 May 2007

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Monday, 21 May 2007
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08:05 - Now that we've submitted the manuscript of Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders, it's time to go back to work full-time on the Home Chemistry Laboratory Handbook. This one is going to be a lot of fun.

Just to give you an idea of where I'm going with this book, here's the preliminary table of contents I submitted to O'Reilly with the proposal. Actually, the "preliminary" part is a standing joke. For more than ten years, I've been submitting book proposals to O'Reilly. Every one of them includes a "preliminary" table of contents. That TOC is never updated to a final version until the book goes into production, and the final TOC usually differs significantly from the original. So, in other words, I pretty much write what I want to and let the pieces fall into place as I go along.

Home Chemistry Laboratory Handbook
Table of Contents (preliminary – subject to change)

  1. Preface

  2. Introduction

  3. Laboratory Safety

  4. Equipping a Home Chemistry Lab

  5. Chemicals for the Home Chemistry Lab

  6. Mastering Laboratory Skills

    1. Introduction

    2. Keeping a Laboratory Notebook

    3. Weighing Solids and Liquids

    4. Measuring Liquids

    5. Using Heat Sources Safely

    6. Working with Glass Tubing

    7. ...

    8. Constructing Apparatuses (Apparati?)

    9. Distillation

    10. Refluxing

  7. Laboratory 1: Elements, Mixtures, and Compounds

    1. Introduction

    2. Separate Mixtures

    3. ...

    4. Produce Allotropic Forms of Sulfur

    5. Synthesize Iron Sulfide: Combustion without Oxygen

    6. Determine the Formula of a Hydrate (Copper Sulfate)

    7. Identify Elements by the Flame Test

    8. Identify Elements by the Borax Bead Test

    9. Purify Ethanol by Distillation

    10. Purify Copper Sulfate by Recrystallization

    11. Extract an Element from a Compound (reduction of copper from carbonate)

  8. Laboratory 2: Solubility and Solutions

    1. Introduction

    2. Prepare Molar Solutions of Solid Chemicals

    3. Prepare Molar Solutions of Liquid Chemicals

    4. Prepare Weight-to-Volume (w/v) Solutions

    5. Prepare Weight-to-Weight (w/w) Solutions

    6. Perform Serial Dilutions

    7. Determine the Solubility Product Constant of a Compound

  9. Laboratory 3: Colligative Properties of Solutions

    1. Introduction

    2. Determine Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression

    3. Determine Molar Mass by Boiling Point Elevation

    4. Observe the Effects of Osmotic Pressure

  10. Laboratory 4: Acid-Base Chemistry

  11. Laboratory 5: Stoichiometry

    1. Introduction

    2. ???: A Single-Displacement Reaction

    3. ???: A Double-Displacement Reaction

  12. Laboratory 6: Chemical Reactions

    1. Introduction

    2. ...

    3. Synthesize a Solid from Two Gases and a Liquid: Ammonium Bicarbonate

  13. Laboratory 7: Chemical Kinetics

    1. Introduction

    2. Observe a Clock Reaction

  14. Laboratory 8: Chemical Equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle

  15. Laboratory 9: Gas Chemistry

    1. Introduction

    2. Observe Charles's Law

  16. Laboratory 10: Thermochemistry and Calorimetry

    1. Introduction

    2. Determine the Specific Heat of a Metal

    3. Determine the Enthalpy Change of a Reaction

    4. The Freezer Flask: A Solid-State Endothermic Reaction

  17. Laboratory 11: Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Reactions

    1. Introduction

    2. ...

    3. Redox Titration of Chlorine Bleach

    4. Redox Titration of Vitamin C

  18. Laboratory 12: Chromatography

    1. Introduction

    2. Chromatography of Marker Pen Dyes

    3. Two-Dimensional Chromatography

    4. Chromatography of Leaves: Comparing Autumn and Spring Leaves

    5. Chromatography of Colorless Compounds

    6. Thin-Layer Chromatography

  19. Laboratory 13: Colorimetry

    1. Introduction

    2. Determine Concentration of a Compound by Visual Colorimetry

  20. Laboratory 14: Electrochemistry

    1. Introduction

    2. Corrosion of Iron

    3. Anodic and Cathodic Sites

    4. Voltaic Cell

  21. Laboratory 15: Photochemistry

    1. Introduction

    2. Determine the Light Sensitivity of a Silver Salt

    3. Determine the Light Sensitivity of an Iron Salt

  22. Laboratory 16: Chemistry of Water

    1. Introduction

    2. ...

    3. Analyze Sea Water

  23. Laboratory 17: Chemistry of Oxygen

    1. Introduction

    2. Prepare Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide via Catalysis

  24. Laboratory 18: Chemistry of Halogens

  25. Laboratory 19: Chemistry of Some Nonmetals

  26. Laboratory 20: Chemistry of Some Metals

  27. Laboratory 21: Chemistry of Some Household Compounds

  28. Laboratory 22: Chemistry of Colloids

    1. Introduction

    2. ...

    3. Observe the Tyndall Effect

  29. Laboratory 23: Synthesis of Coordination Compounds

  30. Laboratory 24: Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

  31. Laboratory 25: Saponification and the Chemistry of Soaps

    1. Introduction

    2. ...

    3. Extract Potassium Hydroxide from Wood Ash

  32. Laboratory 26: Plastics and Polymers

  33. Laboratory 27: Dyes and Pigments

    1. Introduction

    2. Synthesize the First Artificial Pigment: Prussian Blue

  34. Laboratory 28: Sugars and Proteins

  35. Laboratory 29: Organic Synthesis

    1. Introduction

    2. ...

    3. Synthesize Methyl Salicylate from Aspirin

  36. Laboratory 30: Forensic Chemistry

    1. Introduction

    2. ...

    3. Identify Blood with the Kastle-Meyer Test

    4. Reveal Fingerprints by Iodine Fuming

    5. Reveal Fingerprints by Ninhydrin

    6. Identify Opiates with Marquis Reagent

This book will actually stay pretty close to the preliminary TOC, although there will no doubt be some changes as I go along. I want the book to address two distinct markets. First, the hobbyist market typified by those who subscribe to Make Magazine. There are a lot of those. I'm convinced that a lot of guys and not a few women would love to have a mad-scientist-basement-lab setup. Kind of like having a full woodshop setup, but with chemicals. Second, of course, is the home-schooling crowd, which by most estimates now totals well over one million students and is growing fast.

The largest growth in home schooling is among secular home schoolers. Home schooling has been big among Christian families since the 1980's, and continues to grow in that segment. But secular homeschooling is really booming, and many secular homeschooling families object to using Christian curricula. Unfortunately, there's a lack of secular curricula, particularly at the high school level and particularly in science. As a result, secular homeschooling families usually find themselves making do with one of the Christian-oriented curricula from Bob Jones, A Beka, Apologia, or one of the other Christian publishers. Some secular homeschooling families literally take a marking pen to these Christian curricula, blacking out the parts that they find objectionable.

There's no need for that. Chemistry and physics are inherently secular, despite the efforts of Christian publishers to embellish their science curricula with the trappings of religion. There's no such thing as Christian chemistry or Jewish chemistry or atheist chemistry or Mormon chemistry or Buddhist chemistry. There's just chemistry, period. And that's how I'll write this book, from a secular viewpoint, but without hostility toward the beliefs of Christian home schoolers. That should make the book usable by anyone.

On the subject of fans funding television programming directly, I just received the following:

From: Erik Brown
  To: Robert Bruce Thompson
Date: Today 00:35:34
  Re: Pay for Programming
In response to your post on Friday it has already started.  The series is called Sanctuary.  Starring Amanda Tapping from the Stargate SG-1 series.  They claim they are the first broadcast caliber on-line Sci-Fi series.  Each webisode is $1.99.


Official Web Site

It is only scheduled for four episodes so far, I guess that is so they can see how it goes.


From: Erik Brown
  To: Robert Bruce Thompson
Date: Today 00:42:53
  Re: Pay for Programming

Wouldn't you know as soon as I sent the previous email I found another web site with more info.

This shows that there are going to be 8 initial episodes and the first 4 are going to be free (limited quality) through that web site and that downloadable standard and HD versions would be available for a fee through the web site.

It's starting.


Tuesday, 22 May 2007
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08:46 - The Vivitar DF120 slave flash unit arrived yesterday, and works fine. I tested it with my little Concord 5345Z point-and-shoot. The slide switch has four positions labeled "Test/Off", "1", "2", and "3". The numbered positions are all "on" positions, but differ in how they cause the flash to trigger. The manual suggests testing the flash by pointing the camera at it from a meter away and shooting pictures of it. When I set it in positions "1" or "2", I got a nice picture of the flash unit itself. When I set it to position "3", I got a picture of the flash unit with its tube illuminated, so that's the position I'll use with this camera. The other positions are used with cameras that have a pre-flash, allowing the DF120 to ignore preliminary flashes and trigger only when the main flash triggers.

With a pair of fresh AAA alkalines, the unit recharges in 5 to 8 seconds. The ready light is interesting. With every other electronic flash I've owned, the ready light was either off or on. With this unit, the ready light starts to glow dimly after a few seconds, and then brightens noticeably over the following two or three seconds until it reaches full brightness. I didn't notice any increase in recharge time after shooting a couple of dozen images with the flash.

The DF120 comes with a suction cup mount. The suction cup has a hollow hemisphere in the middle, into which a small bolt with a rubber ball head fits. The bolt threads into a bracket that clamps onto the flash, making it fully adjustable in altitude and azimuth. Vivitar also supplies a flat bracket with a pair of standard tripod screws. One of those screws secures to the tripod socket in the camera and the other to the slave flash, allowing you to attach the slave flash to one side of the camera.

With the flash mounted that way, there's only a few inches of separation between the main flash and the slave flash, so it doesn't buy you much in terms of accent lighting. What it does buy you is roughly a doubling of flash output relative to the light output of a typical point-and-shoot flash, or roughly one full stop. That extends the usable range of the flash by about 1.4X, so if your on-camera flash is good out to 14 feet, using the slave extends that range to about 20 feet.

A reader posted some good questions over on the messageboard. I decided to answer them here:

I have a few questions about the chemistry lab book.

Will there be a section on how to avoid buying chemicals that might arouse the interest of the authorities, such as drug and explosive precursors?

In practical terms, this concern has been greatly overstated. Even in the now-paranoid US, you can buy nearly any chemical freely without worrying about ending up on a government list. If you buy a 50-pound bag of ammonium nitrate at the garden center, for example, no one will worry about it, and you can remain anonymous by paying cash. On the other hand, if you buy 20 50-pound bags, someone will probably record your license number and report it.

The problem the government has is that many of the precursors for drugs and explosives are essential chemicals with many other uses. For example, the hydrogen peroxide, acetone, and sulfuric acid needed to synthesize peroxyacetone (the explosive used in the London bombing and attempted shoe bombing) are commonly available and can be purchased anonymously at drug stores, hardware stores, and so on. Even if you buy these common chemicals from a chemical specialty supplier, it's unlikely you'll end up on a government list unless you're foolish enough to order large quantities in suspicious combinations.

Even less common chemicals are safe to buy. For example, I ordered 4 ounces (about 115 grams) of iodine crystals from Elemental Scientific. Iodine can be used in making methamphetamine, so it's on one of the government lists of restricted chemicals. But there's almost no chance that Elemental reported me to anyone, because I ordered a lot of other chemicals at the same time, which makes it pretty obvious that I'm a hobbyist rather than a meth lab operator. Note that it's perfectly legal for me to buy and possess these chemicals; it's Elemental that will get in trouble if it subsequently turns out that they sold restricted chemicals to someone who used them for illegal purposes. So suppliers have to be careful more so than individual purchasers.

All of that said, the basic-level experiments will use as far as is possible common chemicals that are found around the home or are readily available from local sources. There will be some exceptions, but we're keeping them as few as possible.

Will you be assuming that the lab will be set up semi-permanent? Will it be possible to tear it down in a reasonably short period of time and store it somewhere if space is at a premium? as it is for me.

Although we have a permanent lab, that won't be required for completing the lab sessions in the book. It would make it more convenient certainly, and would minimize set-up/tear-down/clean-up time, but it's by no means essential. Common sense should tell anyone that there are better and worse locations for a temporary lab. Keeping poisonous chemicals in the kitchen, for example, is a really bad idea.

Will the book assume an existing theoretical knowledge or instruction in chemistry? At some universities theory and practical are taught and assessed separately although they are usually co-requisite for each other.

This book is designed to stand alone, without any assumptions about previous experience or knowledge. That said, it is also designed to dovetail with a standard textbook-based middle-school or high-school chemistry class, so readers will get more out of it if they also have the background theory.

Lastly, does the US use the SI system, if not, will the book be using it?

All chemists use the SI system, so the book will also use it. However, we'll also use traditional measurements for some purposes. For example, as far as possible, we'll try to avoid the necessity for a balance for basic experiments. So the instructions for a particular experiment may say to weigh 5.0 grams of a particular compound but give the equivalent in volumetric measure as being one level teaspoon plus one level 1/8 teaspoon.


Wednesday, 23 May 2007
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08:30 - My friend Paul Jones called last night. He was at Best Buy, looking at notebook computers. Mary leaves first thing Saturday morning for her around-the-world run, and it seems that the arrangements the organizers have made for computer access during the run are pretty rudimentary. Paul and Mary decided that she needed to take her own notebook computer. She didn't want to risk her work notebook, so they decided to buy a low-end notebook for her trip. All Mary really needs is something to let her browse the web, use email and word processing, back up images from her digital camera, and so on.

It was too late to order something from NewEgg, so Paul headed for Best Buy to see what was available locally. Paul was concerned because all of the low-end notebooks available at Best Buy were bundled with Vista Home Basic, and wanted to know if we could upgrade Vista to something better once Mary returned. I told him that I couldn't guarantee anything, but that I thought it wouldn't be a problem to upgrade the new notebook to Linux or, as a last resort, even Windows XP. Obviously, there might be some driver issues, but I told him we could probably get the system running on Windows XP if not something better.

Paul decided on the least expensive notebook Best Buy offered, a Toshiba Satellite T2080 for $500. Looking at the specs, I was surprised by how much notebook was available for how little money. That $500 buys a dual-core Intel mobile processor, 512 MB of RAM, an 80 GB hard drive, a DVD burner, a 15.4" display, and Wi-Fi. That's a bit light on memory, particularly for a dual-core processor, but I told Paul it should suffice for what Mary wants to do on the trip, and we can always add more memory when she gets home.

If there's time, I'll probably check out the system and remove as much of the crapware as possible before Mary leaves. Or perhaps I'll just point Paul and Mary to a crapware removal tool.


Thursday, 24 May 2007
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08:38 - Mary is happy with her new notebook, but unhappy with Vista. She leaves for her around-the-world run first thing Saturday morning, so with that little time remaining it really isn't practical to upgrade her notebook to Windows XP or Linux, although we considered it. Paul is ordering a 2 GB upgrade kit from Crucial this morning, which he'll install tomorrow, but other than that Mary will be taking the notebook in its stock configuration.

I'll spend some time tomorrow fettling the system--stripping off crapware, installing Firefox, OpenOffice.org, AV and malware scanners, and so on. I'll also make sure it's setup properly for Wi-Fi and to transfer images from her digital camera. Other than that, everything will have to wait until she returns home in September.

This weekend, Barbara and I will attend the North Carolina Home Educators conference, which is here in Winston-Salem. I also plan to spend some time cleaning up and organizing the lab. And, by the end of the month, I want to have another full chapter complete.

11:48 - The United States Constitution is truly dead if this decision stands. Teen Girls Face Hate Crime Charges Over Anti-Gay Flier. The article begins:

"A pair of 16-year-old girls face hate crime charges after they allegedly handed out anti-gay fliers targeting a classmate at their northern Illinois high school."

And here I thought they were covered:

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

If passing out fliers, no matter how contemptible the position advocated by those fliers, can now be defined as a criminal act, then we no longer have a Bill of Rights.


Friday, 25 May 2007
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08:28 - What is with the Chinese? Barbara thinks they're intentionally trying to poison us.

First, they ship contaminated food products to pet food makers that result in the deaths of thousands of dogs and cats. Then, last week, it's announced that they're shipping toothpaste that contains the toxic diethylene glycol. Yesterday, a recall was announced of Chinese-supplied fish that had been found to contain the incredibly toxic neurotoxin tetrodotoxin.

Obviously, the Chinese cannot be trusted. Furthermore, there's no real way to ensure that Chinese products meet US safety standards. Only a tiny percentage of shipments from China are even cursorily inspected, let alone tested, when they arrive in the US.

So, I have a modest proposal. How about we ban all imports of Chinese products, both those that are sourced directly from China and those from other countries that incorporate anything that is produced in or originates in China? Not just food products. All products. That would leave Wal*Mart scrambling, of course. But China produces nothing that isn't also made in the US or elsewhere, nearly always of much higher quality.

And if the prices are a bit higher, well so what? The little Vivitar DF120 slave flash I just bought was made in China. It cost $35. I'd have happily paid $50 for a similar product made in the USA, the UK, Japan, or one of the other first-world countries.

Things have become completely bass-ackward. We're supposed to buy raw materials from third-world countries (including, I should note, petroleum from the Persian Gulf states) at very low prices and ship them manufactured goods at very high prices. That's the natural order of things, but it's somehow gotten out of whack. I blame it on the demise of gunboats.

09:45 - American parents are often criticized, rightly in my opinion, for being overly-protective of their children. Apparently, some Indian parents have gone too far the other way, as shown in this video of a baby playing with a presumably-defanged cobra. (This video is very graphic; the cobra strikes several times.)

12:18 - The Dell Ubuntu systems are now officially available for purchase. Equivalent configurations with Ubuntu cost about $50 less than with Vista. The best value for crapware that we have is from Michael Dell himself, who indirectly suggested that it might be worth about $60 per system to Dell. The Ubuntu systems Dell sells are crapware-free, which implies they are probably priced about $60 higher than they would otherwise be. That puts the "Windows tax" at about $110 per system.

It'll be interesting to see how well these Ubuntu systems sell. My guess is that they'll sell in pretty limited numbers. They're mass-market home models, and if Dell intends to sell their business line systems with Ubuntu pre-installed, I'm not aware of it. Dell's intended market is clearly the "Aunt Minnie" folks who just want a reliable, spyware-free, secure system to send and receive email, browse the web, manage digital photos and camcorder video, and so on. As long as they don't want to play games, which these systems aren't really suited for anyway, these folks are better off running Linux. Still, I'd guess the vast majority will order the systems with Vista instead of Ubuntu. But given Dell's sales volumes, if even 1% or 2% of buyers choose the Ubuntu option, that's a lot of systems.


Saturday, 26 May 2007
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09:41 - Mary is off this morning to Lake Placid, where she'll spend several days preparing for her around-the-world run.

She and Paul stopped by after lunch yesterday to drop off her new Toshiba notebook. I installed the software she'll need to browse the web, check email, manage her digital camera images, and so on. This machine has Vista installed, which of course caused all kinds of problems. Firefox, OpenOffice.org, Irfanview, and AVG antivirus installed without incident, but the AVG anti-spyware program refused to run after apparently installing normally. I ended up installing SpyBot Search & Destroy 1.4, which works fine.

Disc burning software was also a problem. I started by installing DeepBurner, which apparently installs normally, but doesn't work properly. I wasn't able to find any free burning software that worked properly with Vista, so I decided to tell Mary just to use the built-in burning applet.

I also installed Skype, almost as an afterthought. When I fired up Skype, it told me there was no microphone present. Oh, well. I was hoping there was an integrated microphone in the Toshiba notebook, but apparently there isn't. I fished out the Logitech headset I use on those infrequent occasions when I need Skype, and added it to the stack of stuff Mary will be carrying along with her.

Paul had mentioned that the 256 MB memory card in their digital camera stores about 125 images, which is obviously insufficient for a three-month trip, so I dug out a 2 GB memory card and added that to the stack of stuff Mary will be taking along. That should give her room for close to 1,000 images, assuming that their camera will recognize a card that large.

They stopped by our house after dinner to pick up the notebook and other stuff. I gave Mary a quick overview of what software I'd installed and how to use it. I'm sure she'll figure it out as she goes along, and if she has any problems I'm as close as the nearest Internet access point.

Mary will be blogging about her experiences along the way. As soon as it's active, I'll post a link to her blog for those of you who'd like to follow her progress, and perhaps offer her some encouragement. Mary is an excellent story teller. Here's one of hers that won a competition.

It Promised Us Animals
by Mary Chervenak

The guidebook stated emphatically that the Fawn Pass hike in Yellowstone was the place to see wildlife. The paragraph describing the hike was accompanied by a glossy photograph of a lone moose, watching the sunrise, contemplatively chewing a dripping piece of waterweed. We were sold. On our last day in Montana, Paul and I rolled out of bed at 4 AM, slung our packs onto our shoulders, and marched into the meadow just as the sun was rising. Paul, spooked by some gory pictures of a bear attack posted on the wall of an outfitter in Bozeman, armed himself with a tiny can of bear spray.

We had water and peanut butter sandwiches. We were gooey with sunscreen. The day was clear and cool, the sky a delicate shell pink. I found an expensive pair of sunglasses at the trailhead. Good luck, and more good luck. Buoyant, I led off the hike, trying to whistle the theme to “Working Girl”.

The mosquitoes attacked us as soon as we left the parking lot. A quarter mile into the hike, I regretted my decision to wear shorts. I had mosquitoes landing all over me and getting stuck in my sunscreen. They were crawling in my hair, my ears, my underwear. I stopped trying to whistle and started shaking my legs violently and cursing.

Paul suggested that we pick up the pace. The sun was rising, the air was warming up, the animals were leaving. And maybe, maybe, we could outrun the mosquitoes. While moving at a half-trot, Paul bent down to brush a new crop of stranded mosquitoes off the back of my legs. I heard something hiss – an odd, unwilderness-like sound, like a punctured tire suddenly going flat.

I stopped and turned. Paul had a strange expression on his face. “Hand me your water bottle.” he said. I passed him the bottle and he squirted its entire contents into his groin. The water ran down his leg and into his boot.

“I’m fine.” Paul assured me, even though I hadn’t said anything. I was still trying to figure out the flat-tire noise. We started to trot again.

We’d gone another quarter mile when Paul suddenly dropped his pack and sprinted off the trail towards a stream about 300 yards away. He ripped off his clothes as he ran, and leapt into the stream wearing only his boots.

After a minute, I was able to gather my wits enough to follow him. Paul was rolling in about three inches of ice-cold water, flailing like a walrus on a sandbar. I realized suddenly what the hissing noise had been.

Paul had released the can of pepper spray into his groin, and then, moments later, had washed the spray into his boot.

I started laughing, helplessly, and I couldn’t stop. Paul splashed around in the stream for about 20 minutes, emerging from the water bright pink. His pants, shirt, and socks were saturated with the oily pepper spray; I rummaged through our two packs in search of dry, clean clothes. We didn’t have much – the hike was supposed to be short and photograph-oriented. After a thorough search, I’d found a purple waterproof anorak, an extra pair of socks decorated with lace, and a sleeveless blue fleece vest. Paul changed socks, donned the vest, and then tried to arrange the anorak for maximum coverage. He ended up opting to let the knotted sleeves hang in front.

Paul collected his pack and, ignoring my hysterics, hurried back to the trail and headed towards the parking lot. I followed in his wake, still laughing. The hike was most definitely over.

I had trouble keeping up with Paul -- he was anxious to get off the trail and back to the car, and I was laughing pretty hard -- so I was several yards behind him when he burst out of the woods, looking slightly crazed and mostly naked. I was close enough, though, to see the reaction of the elderly couple from Virginia as they scanned the woods with a pair of binoculars.

Both were neatly dressed in pressed khakis. Upon seeing Paul, the man dropped his binoculars and hustled his wife back into their RV. They peeled out of the parking lot, leaving a streamer of blue smoke. I sat down on the trail and howled. Paul, unperturbed, continued on to the car, undressed completely in the parking lot, and hunted through the pile of food and dirty clothes in the trunk for a pair of jeans.

The sun was now high in the sky and people were starting to arrive. Paul seemed to stay naked for a really long time. Cars pulled into the parking lot, hesitated, considered, and pulled right back out. No one hiked to Fawn Pass that morning.

Once I finally pulled myself together, we drove to West Yellowstone. Paul plugged about six dollars worth of quarters into a pay shower while I bought ice cream. Later that afternoon, we staggered into the park, where we spent the rest of the day waiting for Old Faithful and munching squashed peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.


Sunday, 27 May 2007
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00:00 -


Copyright © 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 by Robert Bruce Thompson. All Rights Reserved.